Oracle8 Enterprise Edition Getting Started 
Release 8.0.5 for Windows NT 

Prev Next

Oracle Enterprise Manager Overview

This chapter provides an overview of Oracle Enterprise Manager, Oracle's suite of products for managing Oracle8 databases over a distributed network.

Specific topics discussed are:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Overview

Oracle Enterprise Manager enables database administrators (DBAs) to manage databases distributed across a network from a centralized Console. Database management is performed through an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI). From the Console, you can:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Components

This section describes the components that enable Oracle Enterprise Manager to manage your distributed database network:

Oracle Enterprise Manager Console Features

The Oracle Enterprise Manager Console provides a central point of control through a GUI that provides drag and drop systems management. The Oracle Enterprise Manager Console consists of:

The menus, toolbars, and tools palette are context-sensitive. Integrated applications can also be launched from the Console. The menu options that display depend on which Console window is active. The tools available in a palette depend upon the type of service selected in the Navigator or Map windows. Press F1 to view the options.

This figure shows the four Console windows:


See Oracle Enterprise Manager Administer's Guide for information on using the Console menus, toolbars, tools palette, and windows. Brief descriptions of the four windows are provided in the following table.

Window  Description 


The Navigator Window provides a hierarchical tree view of the network's nodes and services, and any objects they contain. This enables easy object manipulation of all objects in the system. (Objects include nodes, databases, listeners, users, roles, and profiles. A node contains databases and listeners. A database contains users, roles, and profiles.)  

Each type of object in the Navigator tree list is identified by an icon and a name. An object in the tree can also be copied by dragging and dropping it. For example, you can drag and drop users from one database to another. 


The Map Window provides a customized, graphical representation of key objects (such as databases) created by an administrator to manage and monitor a subset or group of objects in the system. Objects can be grouped based on any criteria, simplifying all operations performed on the group members.  

The map is useful for environments with many databases and for visually representing problems detected by the Event Management System. 

Job Scheduling 

The Job Scheduling Window enables you to automate repetitive tasks and provide the kind of "lights out" management vital in a large, distributed environment.  

You can schedule or cancel a job and view its status, or review historical information about jobs. You can also create and manage job scripts. See "Job Scheduling System" for additional information. 

Event Management 

The Event Management Window enables you to create and register event sets, modify or cancel registrations, view the status of services being monitored, view summary information about events that have occurred, and further manage event information.  

You can choose to have the events of interest represented graphically on the Console when they are detected. The system can also notify you through e-mail or numeric and alphanumeric paging. The Oracle Enterprise Manager Console provides support for paging and e-mail when a preregistered event is encountered. The Console currently supports alphanumeric paging systems that use the Telocator Alphanumeric Paging (TAP) protocol for automatic paging and both the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Mail Application Programming Interface (MAPI) for e-mail notification. 


Common Services for Managing Databases

Oracle Enterprise Manager has the following set of common services that help you manage Oracle8 databases throughout the network:

The figure below shows how these common services work together to perform distributed database management across a network. Each common service is then described.


Oracle Intelligent Agent and Communication Daemon

The Oracle Enterprise Manager uses Oracle Intelligent Agent and the communication daemon to manage Console tasks such as scheduling and running remote jobs, and monitoring events on remote sites. The Oracle Enterprise Manager is installed on a Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 Console workstation. Oracle Intelligent Agent is installed on each node with an Oracle8 Enterprise Edition for Windows NT database to be managed.

The communication daemon runs on the Console and communicates with Oracle Intelligent Agent to manage jobs and events.

Oracle Intelligent Agent is effective, nonintrusive, and functions as the executor of jobs and events sent by the Console through the communication daemon. High availability is ensured since Oracle Intelligent Agent can function regardless of the status of the Console or network connections. Oracle Intelligent Agent is responsible for managing and completing tasks requested from the Console workstation by the Oracle Enterprise Manager. Once installed, Oracle Intelligent Agent:

Service Discovery

The communication daemon uses the dynamic discovery feature to identify nodes and services on the network. The figure below illustrates this process:


Job Scheduling System

The Job Scheduling System enables you to schedule and manage job tasks on remote sites. The Job Scheduling System, communication daemon, and Oracle Intelligent Agents work together to schedule and execute jobs. Use the Job Scheduling System to perform asynchronous tasks on multiple sites without having to maintain connections to all those sites. In addition, jobs can run simultaneously on different nodes in the system. See the Oracle Enterprise Manager Administrator's Guide for information on scheduling and managing jobs.

The process for scheduling a job is:

  1. From the Console Job system, submit a job that you have set up.
  2. The communication daemon sends the job information to the appropriate intelligent agent(s).
  3. If a site or its agent is down, the communication daemon queues the job. Once the site can be contacted, the daemon submits the queued job to the agent.
  4. The agent executes the job on schedule.
  5. The agent returns any related job messages back to the daemon for display in the Console.

The Job Scheduling System, communication daemon, and Oracle Intelligent Agents work together to schedule and execute the job. You can use the Job Scheduling System to perform asynchronous tasks on multiple sites without having to maintain connections to all those sites. In addition, jobs can run simultaneously on different nodes in the system.

The features of the Job Scheduling System are described in the table below:

Feature  Description 

Variety of predefined job tasks 

Schedule and run jobs on remote sites throughout the network, including: 

  • Backing up a database 
  • Starting up or shutting down databases or listeners 
  • Running SQL scripts or operating system programs 

You can also submit your own custom jobs to the Job Scheduling System. 

Stored and forwarding job scheduling 

Submit a job once, regardless of the number of nodes on which the job runs or how often it must be executed. Oracle Enterprise Manager ensures that the job is run on schedule on all specified databases, and keeps a history of the job and record of the job's status. You can view information about the job in the Job Scheduling Window. (This is because the task of submitting and managing jobs is centralized in the Console.)  

To schedule a job, you do not need to connect to the node on which the job runs. Instead, submit the job from the Console and specify the nodes or services on which it runs.  

When you submit a job to one or more destinations, it is possible that any one of those sites may be down. If a site or its Oracle Intelligent Agent is down, the communication daemon queues job requests not delivered to the sites. Once the site can be contacted, the daemon submits the queued job to the agent. 

"Lights out" management 

Automate repetitive and periodic tasks and problem correction. If the job has to be executed periodically, the agents reschedule the job without your intervention. Messages about a job's status are reported back to the Console.  

When you register an event to be monitored by Oracle Enterprise Manager, you can specify a fixit job, which is executed to correct the problem if the event occurs. 

Cross-operating system job scripts 

Jobs are implemented as Tool Command Language (Tcl) scripts. Tcl is a scripting language used to write both job and event scripts. Oracle has also extended Tcl (OraTcl) to include database-specific commands. With OraTcl, you can: 

  • Invoke operating system facilities, such as programs or shell scripts 
  • Execute SQL and PL/SQL scripts 
  • Start up and shut down Oracle databases 
  • Communicate with Oracle Intelligent Agent 

Although you submit a job from the Console, the job scripts reside on the agent nodes. Because the manner in which a job is implemented can depend on the operating system, each agent keeps its own set of job scripts.  

This enables you to submit a job, such as backing up a database, without worrying about the specifics of the operating system. For example, you can select a group of databases residing on Windows NT computers, and send one backup job request to back up the databases. The agents on those nodes run backup job scripts that are specific to their operating systems. 

Composite jobs 

Combine two or more predefined jobs (such as backing up a database and then running a script) into one composite job. Each of the predefined jobs contained in the composite job is called a task.  

Composite jobs can contain test conditions based on the success of a task. For example, if a composite job consists of two tasks, starting up a database and then running a SQL script, you can specify that the script be run only if the database was successfully started. 


Run jobs efficiently on multiple remote nodes. When you submit a job to run on a remote node, all the information needed to run the job is transferred to the agent servicing the node. When the job is executed, it is run by the agent on that node, minimizing network traffic between the remote node and the Console and daemon. The only communication between the agents and the Console and daemon are the initial transmission of job information and any subsequent messages about job status changes.  

Because jobs are run independently by agents, you can submit any number of jobs on multiple nodes without affecting the Console. For example, you can submit several jobs and then immediately start another task without waiting for the agents to schedule the jobs.  

In addition, because there is an Oracle Intelligent Agent residing on each managed node, jobs can be run on multiple nodes simultaneously. For example, you can submit a job to run a report on multiple databases worldwide. The job is scheduled and run independently by the agent that services each database. Therefore, the jobs can be executed by their respective agents at the same time. 


Jobs are normally run with your preferred credentials; therefore, you cannot run jobs to perform functions that you could not perform if you were logged into the computer directly.  

Because jobs are categorized by service types, such as database or node, the Job Scheduling System knows which credentials to pass to the agent. 

  • If the job runs on a node, the Job Scheduling System passes either your preferred credentials for the node or, if none are specified, the user name and password used when logging into the Console. 
  • If the job runs on a service, such as a database, the Job Scheduling System also passes your preferred credentials to the service. 

A job can also be run with the agent's credentials. This flexibility enables a site to easily incorporate the Job Scheduling System's authentication methods with existing security policies. 


Event Management System

The Event Management System enables you to monitor specific events at remote sites throughout the network, such as problems on a node or database. The process to register an event set is:

  1. From the Console, register a predefined event set or a set that you created.
  2. The communication daemon sends the event information to the appropriate intelligent agent(s).
  3. The agent does the monitoring and alerts you if the event occurs.
  4. Optionally, you can specify a fixit job to execute if the event occurs.

When an event occurs, you can be notified in various ways, such as e-mail or paging. Also, events are logged in the repository and can be viewed in the Console.

The features of the Event Management System are described in the table below:

Feature  Description 

Proactive Events Management 

Automate problem detection and correction in response to an event. This ensures that a problem is corrected before it noticeably impacts end-users. You can also specify a fixit job to be run in response to a particular event. For example, you can have the Event Management System monitor the tablespace TEMP in the database HR_DB and generate an alert if TEMP runs out of free space. You can also have a data file automatically added to TEMP if this event occurs. 

Unsolicited Error Detection 

Detect events with tools and applications independent of Oracle Intelligent Agents. These tools and applications can be integrated into the Event Management System and communicate directly with Oracle Intelligent Agents. For example, a third-party application can detect an event on a node and report that event to Oracle Intelligent Agent on that node. Oracle Intelligent Agent then sends the message back to the Console. 

Event Scripts 

As with jobs, events are OraTcl scripts stored on the Oracle Intelligent Agent node. Event scripts can save state information. Saving a state between executions of an event script enables Oracle Intelligent Agent to remember if it has already detected a certain event and eliminate redundant event messages to the Console. This also enables event scripts to maintain a history of a database and adjust to typical behavior.  

Note: Unlike job scripts, event scripts are run with the permissions of Oracle Intelligent Agent. 


The Event Management System allows one person to monitor a large system. If you are responsible for 100 databases, you cannot connect to each database every day to check on performance. Using the Event Management System, you can effectively monitor all databases 24 hours a day, and be alerted if a problem is detected.  

The Event Management System also enables you to focus on select systems and events. This control is vital in a large system. Rather than monitor all sites or a large number of sites, you can pinpoint only those services you want to monitor.  

An administrator can monitor a large number of sites with minimal performance impact on the Console. Because Oracle Intelligent Agents perform the monitoring independent of the Console, an administrator can monitor many sites without slowing other tasks. 

Predefined Event Sets 

Standard pre-defined event sets are provided. Advanced event sets are included with the optional Diagnostics Pack.  

The standard pre-defined events are the fault management events: 

  • Database up/down 
  • Listener up/down 
  • Node up/down 

Pre-defined event sets included with the Diagnostics Pack are: 

  • Space management and resource usage events, such as a disk becoming too full or a tablespace running out of extents 
  • Performance management events, such as a CPU load being abnormal or a database system statistic being too high 

See the Oracle Enterprise Manager Performance Monitoring and Planning Guide and Chapter 12, "Monitoring a Database"

Optimized Intelligent Agents 

The optimized intelligent agent has been optimized to monitor large numbers of systems and events efficiently. Event tests are generally executed by the agent process directly and can be run quickly. 



The Oracle Enterprise Manager Repository is a database accessible from the Console. The repository:

You can have more than one repository in your system. A user is associated with one repository.

The repository provides a centralized location for storing information about the state of the environment managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager from the perspective of each Console user. It contains information on:

See the Oracle Enterprise Manager Administrator's Guide for information on creating your own repository.


Access to Oracle Services on the network is controlled by a set of user-defined, preferred credentials for the available nodes and services. Oracle Enterprise Manager caches the user authentication information in encrypted form in the repository and provides it as part of the connection request from the Oracle Enterprise Manager Console or Console-launched applications.

To access services, you must log in to the Console by using an authorized user name and password. Oracle Enterprise Manager manages the connections made on your behalf and ensures that others cannot perform operations they are not privileged to perform.

Integrated Applications

Oracle Enterprise Manager has an open architecture that enables software to be integrated with the Console. The design of these integrated applications:

This section describes the following integrated application features:

Database Administration Applications

Oracle Enterprise Manager includes a standard set of integrated database administration (DBA) applications that automate and simplify DBA tasks. These applications can be launched directly from the Console or the Administration Toolbar. In addition, third-parties can write applications that integrate into the Console, use the available common services, and launch from the Console. The applications available are described in the following table:

DBA Application  Description 

SQL Worksheet 

Enables you to enter SQL statements, PL/SQL code, and DBA commands dynamically, and run scripts that are stored as files. SQL Worksheet maintains a history of the commands entered, enabling you to edit and re-execute an earlier command without retyping it. You can drag a SQL file and drop it into a worksheet to load it. You can have multiple SQL Worksheets open at a time, each separate from others. Therefore, you can commit or roll back work in each worksheet independently. 

Instance Manager 

Enables you to start up and shut down databases, examine and edit initialization parameters, manage in-doubt transactions, and manage user sessions. 

Storage Manager 

Enables you to perform DBA tasks associated with managing database storage. These tasks include managing tablespaces and rollback segments, and adding and renaming data files. You can also launch database tools and utilities from Storage Manager. 

Backup Manager 

Enables you to perform tablespace backups, create backup scripts guided by a backup wizard, and administer redo logs. The Backup Manager manages the following groups: 

  • database 
  • tablespace 
  • data files 

The Backup Manager simplifies backups through the use of a backup wizard. The Backup Wizard enables you to specify the: 

  • status of the database required to complete the backup 
  • particular tablespaces of the database to be backed up 
  • backup method to be used 
  • name of the file that contains the backup job script you are creating using the Tablespace Backup Wizard 

Security Manager 

Enables you to create, alter, and drop users, roles, and profiles, and add multiple privileges and roles for database users. Security Manager controls the security of Oracle databases. Profiles and roles assigned to a set of users are in constant change; Security Manager simplifies making changes by providing security lists that an administrator uses to determine which profiles and roles have been assigned to a set of users. Use property sheets to determine the security parameters for each database. Required changes can be made quickly. 

Schema Manager 

Enables you to create, edit, and examine status, owner, creation date, and last date modified information for the following schema objects: 

  • clusters 
  • database links 
  • functions and procedures 
  • indexes 
  • packages and package bodies 
  • refresh groups 
  • sequences 
  • snapshots and snapshot logs 
  • synonyms 
  • tables 
  • triggers 
  • views 

Data Manager 

Enables you to automate (through wizards) the transfer of data to and from an Oracle database. Data Manager also provides job tasks that can be submitted with the Job Scheduling System. The Data menu of Data Manager includes Export, Import, and Load wizard options for: 

  • Exporting data to a file. This option transfers data from an Oracle database to an Oracle binary operating system file. The file can then be used with the import operation. 
  • Importing data from a file. This option transfers data to an Oracle database that has been exported from another Oracle database. 
  • Loading data from an external file. This option loads data from operating system files, such as text files, to an Oracle database. 

Oracle Software Manager 

Enables you to manage software from a central location across the enterprise with: 

  • An integrated toolset for managing software in a distributed fashion 
  • A next generation architecture that offers network scalability through an advanced client-agent-server paradigm 
  • An easy-to-use GUI that allows administrators to easily run software configuration jobs and track assets across the entire network 

The Oracle Enterprise Manager/Oracle Software Manager (OSM) network comprises one or more Oracle Enterprise Manager/OSM installations, each administering host servers that contain Oracle Intelligent Agents. Oracle Intelligent Agent can have clients that are administered as part of the network.  

OSM uses a lightweight store-and-forward messaging system that keeps network traffic to a minimum. In the event of network problems, any message that is waiting to be sent, either from the Console or Oracle Intelligent Agent, is held until the network is back online. Communications between the Console and agents are not resource intensive; they require only one connection per agent. If a host becomes unavailable, the connection is freed. 

Oracle Net8 Assistant 

Enables you to administer configuration of Net8 products. 

Replication Manager 

Enables you to administer advanced replication environments that support an update-anywhere data model. 


See the Oracle Enterprise Manager Administrator's Guide for information on using these tools.

Common Features

The integrated database administrator applications share some common features:
Feature  Description 

Tree Lists 

All tools have a tree list of managed objects similar to the Navigator tree list in the Console. For example, in the Security Manager, the tree list has containers for users, roles, and profiles. These containers can be expanded or collapsed by clicking the + or - icons to the left of the container. 

Multi-column Lists 

A multi-column list is displayed when you select a group container. Each row in the list provides a quick view of summary information about objects in the selected container. Additionally, you can select and alter items through their respective property sheets. 

Property Sheets 

A property sheet is a dialog box used to specify options when you are creating or altering a composite instance, such as a user or tablespace. A property sheet consists of one or more pages that are labeled with page tabs. By default, one page is open when the sheet is entered, but all pages show page tabs. To access another page, select its page tab. 

Record and Play Back 

The integrated applications also provide a "record and play back" mechanism that makes it easy to record a task and perform it at multiple locations. For example, if you want to assign several privileges to a set of users who exist on ten databases, use the Security Manager and the logging mechanism to record the granting of the privileges, then use the Job Control System to perform the assignment at the ten databases. 

Basic/Advanced User Modes 

Advanced Mode displays additional property sheets that enable you to access an application's advanced database administration features. 


Integrating Additional Applications

Additional systems management applications are available for Oracle Enterprise Manager. These applications are available from Oracle Corporation and third-party software developers.

Examples of Oracle applications integration into Enterprise Manager are:

Copyright © 1998 Oracle Corporation. 
All Rights Reserved.