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(1) An alternative name for an existing network object, such
as a host (server), or a set of parameters. (2) In SQL, a temporary name
assigned to a table, view, column, or value within a SQL statement, used
to refer to that item later in the same statement or in associated SQL*Plus
Where the Oracle8 database stores information about the structure of the database; describes how the data in the server is organized. Collection of tables and views commonly used by the Oracle8 database. Owned by the user SYS. Includes:
An online data dictionary is an integral part of the data
source and always reflects the current definition of the data source. Data
structures can be changed while the data source is being accessed. See
also data dictionary.
Represents a unique registry subkey for each Oracle home
directory in which you install products. A new HOMEID is created
and incremented each time you install products to a different Oracle home
directory on one computer. Each HOMEID contains its own configuration parameter
settings for installed Oracle products.
When you install the Oracle8 database for the first time
on a machine, your SID is typically ORCL. For each subsequent Oracle8 database
installation into a different Oracle home on the same computer, ORCL is
automatically incremented by one (that is, for a second Oracle8 database
installation, the SID is ORC1, for a third Oracle8 database installation,
the SID is ORC2, etc.).
The background threads and memory areas required to access
an Oracle8 database. A database system requires one instance and one database.
Every Oracle8 instance has a single system global area (SGA); a multiple-user
instance also requires several background threads.
Failure that occurs when a problem arises that prevents a
database instance (SGA and background processes) from continuing work.
Instance failure can result from a hardware problem such as an outage,
or a software problem such as an operating system crash. When an instance
failure occurs, the data in the buffers of the SGA is not written to the
Recovery of an instance in the event of software or hardware
failure, so that the database is again available to users. If the instance
terminates abnormally, then instance recovery automatically occurs at the
next instance startup.
The server process that listens for and accepts incoming
connection requests from client applications. Oracle listener processes
start up Oracle database processes to handle subsequent communications
with the client.
A database associated with an Oracle instance. The database
can be opened or closed. A database must be both mounted and opened to
be accessed by users. A database that has been mounted but not opened can
be accessed by DBAs for some maintenance purposes.
Network Computing Architecture is a common set of technologies
that enables all PCs, network computers, and other client devices to work
with all Web servers, database servers, and application servers over any
network. It is a robust, scalable, and open infrastructure that serves
as the basis for the next generation of distributed computing.
File that records all committed changes made to the database.
Whenever a transaction is committed, the corresponding redo entries temporarily
stored in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to an online redo log
file by the background process LGWR. An online redo log file can be individual
or mirrored; in the latter case, it is an online redo log group, made up
of online redo log members.
A product that maps the functions of a given network protocol
into Oracle Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) architecture. This process
translates TNS function calls into requests to the underlying network protocol.
This allows TNS to act as an interface among all protocols. Net8 requires
The Oracle procedural language extension of SQL. PL/SQL combines
the ease and flexibility of SQL with the procedural functionality of a
structured programming language, such as IF...THEN, WHILE, and LOOP. Even
when PL/SQL is not stored in the database, applications can send blocks
of PL/SQL to the database rather than individual SQL statements, thereby
reducing network traffic.
A tool that enables a user to embed any SQL statement in
a third-generation language (3GL) (host language) program. The precompiler
takes this program as input and produces as output another program, in
the same 3GL, in which all the embedded SQL calls are translated into host
language procedure calls. This resulting program can be compiled, linked,
and executed. Oracle supports precompilers for the languages C, FORTRAN,
Pascal, PL/I, COBOL, and Ada.
A right to successfully execute a particular type of SQL
statement. Some examples of privileges include rights to connect to the
database (create a session), create a table in your schema, select rows
from someone else's table, and execute someone else's stored procedure.
The privileges of an Oracle8 database can be divided into two distinct
categories: system privileges and object privileges.
(1) A thread of control in an operating system; that is,
a mechanism in an operating system that can execute a series of steps.
Some operating systems use the terms job or task. A process
normally has its own private memory area in which it runs. An Oracle8 database
has two general types of processes: user processes and Oracle processes.
(2) A synonym for "user," a single entity performing a set of tasks in
an operating system environment or a database.
A sequential log of all changes made to the data. The redo
log is written and used in the event that a failure caused the changes
to not be written to disk; it is used to re-apply the changes to disk.
The redo log consists of two or more redo log files; one is optionally
being saved while another is being written to by the Oracle8 database.
When the file currently being written fills, the other file is re-used.
See also online redo log and off-line redo log.
The second half of the recovery procedure. After the roll
forward, any changes that were not committed must be undone. After the
redo log files have been applied, the rollback segments are used to identify
and undo transactions that were never committed, yet were recorded in the
redo log. Oracle completes this step automatically.
A collection of related objects. Schema objects are the logical
structures that directly refer to the database's data. Schema objects include
such structures as tables, views, sequences, stored procedures, synonyms,
indexes, clusters, and database links. There is no relationship between
a tablespace and a schema: objects in the same schema can be in different
tablespaces, and a tablespace can hold objects from different schemas.
A unique name for an Oracle database instance. To switch
between Oracle databases, users must specify the desired SID. The SID is
included in the CONNECT DATA parts of the connect descriptors in a TNSNAMES.ORA
file, and in the definition of the network listener in the LISTENER.ORA
file. Also known as system ID.
An alias for a table, view, sequence, or program unit; a
synonym is not actually an object itself, it is a direct reference to its
base object. Synonyms are used to mask the real name and owner of an object,
provide public access to an object, provide location transparency for tables,
views, or program units of a remote database, and simplify the SQL statements
for database users. A synonym can be public or private.
A special database administer role that permits a database
administrator to perform STARTUP, SHUTDOWN, ALTER DATABASE OPEN/MOUNT,
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP, ARCHIVE LOG, and RECOVER, and includes the RESTRICTED
One of two standard DBA user names automatically created
with each database (the other is SYS). The Oracle user SYSTEM is created
with the password MANAGER. The SYSTEM user name is the preferred user name
for DBAs to use when performing database maintenance.
The basic unit of storage in a relational database management
system. A table represents entities and relationships, and consists of
one or more units of information (rows), each of which contains the same
kinds of values (columns).
A logical portion of an Oracle8 database used to allocate
storage for table and index data. Each tablespace corresponds to one or
more physical database files. Every Oracle8 database has a tablespace called
SYSTEM and may have additional tablespaces. A tablespace is used to group
related logical structures together. For example, tablespaces commonly
group all of an application's objects to simplify certain administrative
A file created when a problem or exceptional condition is
encountered while using a software program. Also called a dump file, the
file contains information useful in diagnosing or locating the problem.
(1) Parameters whose value can change or can be reset. (2)
The INITSID.ORA parameters whose values can vary and affect the
performance of a database. DBAs may wish to "tune" or experiment with the
variable parameter values in order to optimize their database's performance.